Watermelon Growing Stages | Learn About Watermelon

watermelon growing stages

Growing watermelons is a delightful journey that transforms tiny seeds into the sweet, juicy fruits we all enjoy during the warm months. The process, however, is more complex and fascinating than many might initially think. From the initial planting of seeds to the moment you slice into a ripe, refreshing watermelon, each stage of growth plays a crucial role in determining the quality and flavor of your harvest. In our article, “Watermelon Growing Stages,” we delve deep into this captivating process, providing readers with a comprehensive guide that not only establishes our expertise in horticulture but also promises invaluable insights for both novice and experienced gardeners alike.

Understanding the watermelon growing stages is essential for anyone looking to master the art of cultivating these fruits. Whether you’re a home gardener aiming to grow a few plants for personal enjoyment or a commercial farmer seeking to optimize yield and fruit quality, the knowledge contained within this guide is designed to support your endeavors. We cover everything from seed germination, vine growth, and flower pollination, to fruit set, development, and the all-important indicators of ripeness. Our article is packed with expert tips, sustainable practices, and troubleshooting advice to help you navigate the challenges and joys of growing watermelons.

But why focus on watermelons? Beyond their delicious taste and refreshing qualities, watermelons are fascinating botanical specimens that offer a unique window into the plant growth process. They require specific conditions to thrive, and understanding these requirements can shed light on broader agricultural and ecological principles. By exploring the “Watermelon Growing Stages,” readers will not only gain practical knowledge for cultivating these fruits but also develop a deeper appreciation for the complexities of plant life and the importance of nurturing our natural world.

So, whether you’re curious about the journey from seed to fruit, looking to improve your gardening skills, or simply in search of a fun and educational read, our article promises to engage, inform, and inspire. Join us as we embark on this watermelon-growing adventure, and discover the secrets to producing your best crop yet. Let’s dive into the world of watermelons together, exploring each stage of growth and uncovering the wonders of this beloved summer fruit.

Introduction to watermelons

Introduction to watermelons

Brief history and origin of watermelons

Watermelons likely originated in southern Africa, where evidence of their cultivation has been found dating back to the 2nd millennium BCE. From there, they spread north through Egypt and the Mediterranean. Today China is the world’s largest producer of watermelons. Other top producers include Turkey, Iran, Brazil, and the United States.

Importance and nutritional benefits of watermelons

Watermelons are an important food crop around the world due to their nutritional content and hydrating properties. The flesh provides significant levels of vitamins A, B6, and C, as well as lycopene, potassium, and antioxidants. Watermelons are also over 90% water, making them ideal for hydration on hot summer days. Growing your own watermelons can provide your family with a tasty and nutritious addition to your diet.

Overview of watermelon production globally

Country Annual Production (million tonnes)
China 79.2
Turkey 4.3
Iran 4.2
Brazil 2.5
United States 2.3

Getting Started with Watermelons

Before planting your first watermelon seeds, some advance planning and preparation is required. In this chapter we’ll cover optimal planting times, soil testing, site selection, and how to choose the right watermelon variety for your region.

Pre-Planting Considerations

  • Planting times: Ideal planting dates range from early spring in warm climates to early summer in cooler regions. Consult local guides for your first and last frost dates.
  • Soil testing: Test your soil to determine pH and nutrient levels. Watermelons prefer slightly acidic soil (pH 6.0-6.8) with moderate fertility.
  • Site selection: Choose a site with full sun, good drainage, and shelter from strong winds. Rotating sites yearly helps prevent disease.

Optimal planting times by region

Region Planting Window
Southeast March to early May
Midwest Late May to mid June
Northeast Late May to mid June
West Coast Early April to mid May

Soil testing and preparation

  • Use a soil test kit or send samples to a lab to determine:
    • pH
    • Macronutrient levels (N,P,K)
    • Micronutrient levels
    • Organic matter percentage
  • Adjust pH with lime (to raise) or sulfur (to lower) based on test
  • Improve drainage if needed
  • Add compost or manure 1-2 weeks before planting

Site selection for planting

  • Full sun: At least 6 hours daily
  • Fertile, well-draining soil
  • Avoid windswept areas using windbreaks
  • Rotate planting sites yearly to prevent disease
  • Allow ample space for vines to spread

Selecting Watermelon Varieties

Choosing the right watermelon variety for your growing conditions is key to success. Consider the following factors:

Comparison of watermelon varieties

Variety Description Good For
Icebox Small, round fruits (5-15 lbs) Small gardens, short seasons
Jubilee Large, oblong striped fruits (15-30 lbs) Warm climates, home gardens
Crimson Sweet Medium-large fruits (15-25 lbs) Wide climatic adaptability
Moon and Stars Variegated rind, sweet pink flesh Novelty, heirloom appeal

Varietal recommendations for specific climates

  • Cool climates: Early ripening, smaller varieties like Sugar Baby
  • Warm climates: Big Carolina, Crimson Sweet, Jubilee
  • Short growing seasons: Icebox types

Choosing seeds vs. transplants

  • Seeds: Less expensive, more variety, better adapted
  • Transplants: Faster maturation, avoid cold damage

Use transplants where seasons are very short. Otherwise, start from seed.

The Life Cycle of a Watermelon

Now that your site is prepared and varieties selected, it’s time to learn about the phases of watermelon growth from seed to harvest. Here’s an overview of the watermelon life cycle.

Overview of the Life Cycle

Watermelons progress through four key phases:

  1. Germination – Seed sprouts and seedling emerges
  2. Vegetative growth – Leaves, vines, and roots expand
  3. Flowering – Flowers emerge and pollination occurs
  4. Fruit development – Pollinated flowers form expanding fruits

Detailed Growth Stages

Let’s look more closely at what happens during each stage of the life cycle:


  • Purchase disease-free seeds from reputable source
  • Start indoors 3-4 weeks before planting out


  • Sprout occurs 3-10 days after sowing
  • Seedlings emerge 5-14 days after
  • Develop 2-3 true leaves before transplanting

Vegetative Growth

  • Vines lengthen rapidly
  • Leaves expand to capture sunlight
  • Roots spread widely to absorb water and nutrients

Flower Production and Pollination

  • Male and female flowers form on same plants
  • Bees transfer pollen between flowers
  • Fruits develop from pollinated female flowers

Fruit Development and Ripening

  • Fruits grow rapidly in warm weather
  • Gradually change color as sugars develop
  • Ripening occurs 20-50 days after pollination


  • Indicators: dried tendrils, yellow belly spot
  • Use a sharp knife to cut from vine
  • Leave 3-4 inches of stem attached

Watermelon Plant Timeline

Stage Timeline
Germination 3-14 days after sowing
Transplanting 2-3 true leaves emerged
Vegetative Growth 4-5 weeks after transplant
Flowering 6-8 weeks after transplant
Fruit Set 1-2 weeks after flowering
Ripening 3-5 weeks after fruit set
Harvest 20-50 days after pollination

Best Practices for Watermelon Cultivation

Now that you understand the phases of watermelon growth, let’s look at some key best practices to help your plants thrive.

Conditions for Growing Watermelon

Watermelons need:

  • Warm weather
  • Lots of sunshine
  • Plentiful moisture
  • Good drainage
  • Shelter from wind
  • Bees for pollination
  • Periodic fertilizing

Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

IPM combines preventive measures and organic/chemical controls:

  • Crop rotation to prevent disease buildup
  • Row covers to exclude pests
  • Natural predators like ladybugs to eat aphids
  • Organic sprays derived from plants
  • Pesticides carefully applied only when needed

The goal is to maximize natural defenses before using chemical controls.


Bees play a critical role in watermelon pollination. Follow these tips:

  • Avoid applying pesticides during flowering stage
  • Create bee habitat in nearby areas
  • Consider bee-attracting companion plants like marigolds, zinnias, etc.
  • As a last resort, manually pollinate using a cotton swab

Seasonal Care and Challenges

Proper care throughout the seasons gives your watermelons the best chance for abundant harvests. Here are some key tips.

Watermelon Plant Care Throughout the Seasons


  • Apply nitrogen fertilizer to promote vegetative growth
  • Use floating row covers to prevent insect damage
  • Provide temporary shade if temperatures exceed 90°F


  • Water 1-2 inches per week with drip irrigation
  • Side dress with nitrogen fertilizer
  • Scout for pests and diseases
  • Pollinate flowers by attracting bees


  • Reduce watering as fruits ripen
  • Watch fruits for ripeness indicators
  • Harvest promptly once ripe to prevent splitting

Watermelon Cultivation Challenges

Watermelons can face various challenges depending on your region:

Region Common Challenges
Southeast Disease pressure, heavy rainfall
Midwest Short seasons, cool temperatures
Northeast Short seasons, pest damage
West Coast Insufficient water, high temperatures

Solutions may include: using disease-resistant varieties, season extension techniques, irrigation, and pest management practices. Consult local growing guides for specific recommendations.

Sustainability Practices

Consider these tips for environmentally sustainable watermelon growing:

  • Water conservation: Use drip irrigation, mulch to reduce evaporation, reduce watering once established
  • Sustainable pest management: Emphasize preventive measures first before chemical controls

Harvesting, Post-Harvest Handling, and Uses

Harvesting, Post-Harvest Handling, and Uses

Let’s cover how and when to harvest watermelons, plus storage and usage once they make it to your kitchen.

When and How to Harvest Watermelons

  • Look for these ripeness indicators:
    • Curled, dried tendril nearest fruit
    • Yellowish belly spot where fruit touched ground
    • Hollow, dull thud when thumped
  • Use a sharp knife to sever the vine a few inches beyond the fruit
  • Leave 3-4 inches of stem attached to fruit
  • Harvest in early morning when coolest

Post-Harvest Handling

  • Curing: Leave harvested melons laying in the sun for 5-7 days to further ripen sugars
  • Cleaning: Wash well, scrubbing gently with vegetable brush
  • Storage: Whole, uncut melons can keep 2-3 weeks at 60-70°F
  • Refrigerate cut melons wrapped in plastic for up to 5 days

Creative Uses and Recipes

Watermelon isn’t just for eating fresh – try it in these recipes:

  • Watermelon feta salad with mint
  • Grilled watermelon with feta and balsamic
  • Watermelon salsa
  • Watermelon agua fresca drink
  • Watermelon sorbet

See this nutritional guide for health benefits: [Link to watermelon nutrition stats]

Advanced Tips and Troubleshooting

Let’s wrap up with some pro tips for success and solutions to common watermelon growing issues.

Watermelon Growing Tips

  • Start transplants indoors 3-4 weeks before planting out
  • Use floating row covers to boost growth and prevent pests
  • Side dress with nitrogen fertilizer when fruits start developing
  • Mulch around plants to suppress weeds and retain moisture

Watermelon Plants: Diseases and Pests

Problem Identification Treatment
Anthracnose Spots on leaves/vines Fungicide, avoid overhead watering
Belly rot Soft black decayed spot on underside Allow fruits to fully ripen on vine
Aphids Small soft-bodied insects on leaves Strong spray of water, ladybugs, insecticidal soap
Squash vine borer Larvae tunneling in vines Remove damaged sections, protect vines with floating row covers


I hope this comprehensive outline has provided you with useful insights and practical guidance to grow abundant watermelons this season. Remember to choose suitable varieties, nurture plants through each life stage, employ sustainable care practices, and harvest melons at perfect ripeness. Wishing you a sweet and successful watermelon harvest.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *